Diagnosis dan Tatalaksana Emboli Air Ketuban

  • Dwiana Sulistyanti Faculty of Medicine Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda
  • Yusmein Uyun Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
Keywords: DIC, emboli air ketuban, kolaps kardiovaskuler, koagulopati, amniotic fluid embolism, cardiovascular collaps, coagulopathy

Abstract

Emboli air ketuban merupakan sindrom katastrofik yang terjadi selama kehamilan dan persalinan atau segera setelah melahirkan. Emboli air ketuban adalah peristiwa masuknya air ketuban yang mengandung sel-sel janin dan material debris lainnya ke dalam sirkulasi maternal yang menyebabkan kolaps kardiorespirasi. Patofisiologinya sampai saat ini belum jelas. Ada tiga faktor utama yang menyebabkan masuknya air ketuban kedalam sirkulasi ibu yaitu robekan amnion dan korion, terbukanya vena ibu baik melalui vena-vena endoserviks, sinus venosus subplasenta atau akibat laserasi segmen bawah rahim serta adanya tekanan yang mendesak masuknya air ketuban kedalam sirkulasi ibu. Gambaran klinisnya sesak yang tiba-tiba, gagal nafas dan hipotensi yang diikuti oleh kolaps kardiovaskuler, DIC dan kematian. Emboli air ketuban mempunyai angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Pengenalan dini dan diagnosis emboli air ketuban sangat penting untuk meningkatkan angka harapan hidup maternal maupun janin. Penatalaksanaan emboli air ketuban bersifat non spesifik dan suportif, yaitu meningkatkan oksigenasi, memperbaiki sirkulasi, dan memperbaiki koagulopati diikuti dengan prinsip-prinsip basic life support dan advanced life support, dengan fokus utama yaitu stabilisasi kardiopulmonal maternal secara cepat. Tujuan utama yang paling penting adalah mencegah bertambah beratnya hipoksia dan gagal organ yang lebih lanjut. Resusitasi cepat sangat diperlukan tergantung pada keadaan klinis pasien. Pasien dengan emboli air ketuban mempunyai prognosis yang sangat jelek. Sampai saat ini, sindroma ini tidak dapat diprediksikan atau dicegah. Dengan diagnosis awal yang baik, resusitasi cepat dan pendekatan multidisiplin yang baik akan meningkatkan prognosis, memperbaiki mortalitas dan morbiditas maternal maupun fetal.

Diagnostic and Management of Amniotic Fluid Embolism

Abstract

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a catastrophic syndrome that occurs during pregnancy and childbirth or immediately after delivery. Amniotic fluid embolism is an event when amniotic fluid containing fetal cells and other debris enter the maternal circulation, which causes cardiorespiratory collapse. The pathophysiology is not yet clear. There are three main factors that cause the entry of amniotic fluid into the mother's circulation, i.e. tearing of the amnion and chorion, an opening of the maternal veins either through the endocervical veins, subplacental venous sinuses or due to laceration of the lower uterine segment and the pressure that forces the entry of amniotic water into the mother's circulation. The clinical features are sudden onset of breathlessness, respiratory failure and hypotension followed by cardiovascular collapse, DIC and death. Amniotic fluid embolism has high morbidity and mortality rates. Early recognition and diagnosis of amniotic embolism are very important to increase the life expectancy of both the maternal and the fetus. Management of amniotic fluid embolism is non-specific and supportive, namely increasing oxygenation, improving circulation, and improving coagulopathy followed by the principles of basic life support and advanced life support, with the main focus of rapid maternal cardiopulmonary stabilization. The main and most important goal is to prevent further progression of hypoxia and organ failure. Rapid resuscitation is necessary, depending on the clinical condition of the patient. Patients with amniotic fluid embolism have a very poor prognosis. Until recently, this syndrome could not be predicted or prevented. With a good initial diagnosis, rapid resuscitation and a good multidisciplinary approach will improve prognosis, improve maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity.

Author Biographies

Dwiana Sulistyanti, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda

Department Anesthesiology and Intensive care AW Syahranie Samarinda General Hospital Samarinda

Yusmein Uyun, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive care Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta

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Published
2020-09-17
Section
Literature Review